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The National Hot Road Association - NHRA - Essay Example Drag racing is one of the watchful motor sport events in the world. â€œDrag racing, or to be more precise professional drag racing is sport where vehicles race down a set distance down a track. Naturally, whichever car finishes first is the winner. What makes this sport different from the other auto races is that entrants to the race have to accelerate only when given the go signal.â€ (Drag racing: Basic info and facts, 2008). In this, the aim is to complete a straight line distance from the initial position ahead of an opponent car in similar track. The distance to complete the race is generally 200 m. For this racing, there are specially built cars and also daily cars are also used. The special cars especially meant for this drag racing known as dragster is mainly used in this and this covers 200 miles in 2-3 seconds. The purposeful engine and top fuels used in this makes them so powerful to drive in 330 miles per hour. Wally Park is the first one who organized the drag racing as a motorsport event and it was through the association of National Hot Road Association (NHRA). This governing union was first shaped to dispirit the street races. All classes of the motor cars are allowed to compete in the NHRA events. NHRA encourages the specialized groups at the nationwide trials. They are trying to make the more and more people to come and see the contests. NHRA is primarily seeking the safety in these types of motorsports. They are very keen to apply the safety devices in each cars running in the contests. They are allowing the motorcars, which can persuade the security of the driver first, escaping from the car if there is an explosion or other accidents. Drivers should wear the Simpson suits, which are fire resistant. The fuel cell is also kept in the duel tanks to prevent the leaks of fuels. NHRA made the use of HANS device compulsory for the safety of drivers to make them steady while driving.Â The fire extinguishers, wheelie bars and roof escape hatches are some other important safety devices used in these racing cars.Â
Integrated Marketing Communications Essay Definition: Integrated Marketing Communication Definition: IMC is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communications disciplines â€“ for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relations â€“ and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact by The American Association of Advertising Agencies (the 4Aâ€™s) The Emergence of IMC The Market revolution forcing a movement towards IMC: â€¢ â€¢ A shift of marketing dollars from media advertising to other forms of promotion, particularly consumer and trade oriented sales promotions A movement away from relying on advertising-focused approaches, which emphasize mass media such as television and national magazines, to solve communication problems A shift in marketplace power from the manufacturer to the retailer The rapid growth and development of database marketing Demands for greater accountability from advertising agencies and changes in the way agencies are compensated The rapid growth of the Internet, which is changing the very nature of how companies do business and the ways they communicate and interact with consumers â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ The Role of Marketing Communication Marketing communication performs several functions for consumers: â€¢ Consumers are told how the product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when â€¢ Consumers learn about who makes the product and what the company and the brand stand for â€¢ It allows companies to link their brands to other people, places, events, brands, experiences, feelings, and things â€¢ It also contributed to brand equity by establishing the brand in memory and crafting a brand image Marketing communication contributes specifically to brand equity in the following ways: â€¢ By creating awareness of the brand â€¢ Linking the right associations to the brand image in the consumerâ€™s memory â€¢ Eliciting positive brand judgments or feelings â€¢ Facilitating a stronger consumer-brand connection Marketing Communication Forms Marketing communication consists of 6 major modes of communication: Advertising: Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor Sales Promotion: A variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or a service Events and Experiences: Company sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brandrelated interactions Public relations and publicity A variety of programs designed to promote or protect a companyâ€™s image or its individual products Direct marketing: Use of mail, telephone, fax, e-mail, or internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers or prospects Personal selling: Face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders Advertising Sales Promotion Events
Literal meaning of the word kathak is related to katha, the art of story-telling, â€œKatha Kahe So Kathaka Kahaveâ€, which means â€œone who tells a story is a story-tellerâ€. According to M. Monier Williams, Katha denotes conversation, story, speech, tale or fable. Katha also means to â€˜ sing in praiseâ€™, â€˜to say or inform somethingâ€™. Thus, kathakars were originally a caste of story-tellers who were attached to temples in certain parts of Northern India. These kathakars used to go around the countryside narrating the stories of the Epics and other Legends. The modes employed were poetry, music and dance. All these three arts were closely inter-linked. The aim of kathaks was to educate the people in the knowledge of Gods and Mythological Legends. Historically kathak dates back to the Vedic period which are full of descriptions and stories which give us an insight into the mind of those who wrote or composed jthem. Kathak dance is evolved from religious and mythological concepts. In Ramayana period, we can see many glimpses of music and dance. The Ramayana tells the story of an ideal heroic prince Rama of Ayodhya and his devoted wife Sita. This ancient tale has been treasured and retold for countless generation in every Hindu house; they worshipped Rama as the seventh incarnation of Lord Vishnu. In Ramayana we find a mention of recitors who were specialised in story-telling. Lava and Kusha, the two brave sons of Rama rendered Ramayana in verses composed by Sage Valmiki. While reciting the stories, they also added the element of acting-Abhinaya. From that time nomadic bards who narrated the Ramayana were known as â€˜Kushilavasâ€™. As a matter of fact, the term kushilavas has been associated with dancers and actors. Likewise, many mythological stories were depicted through gestures, postures and abhinaya. The another story of Ramayana which tells us that how Ravana, the king of Lanka worshipped Lord Shiva with song and dance. Also the story of Ravana assaulting Rambha, one of the main Apsaras. According to Kapila Vatsyayan, in Ramayana, the Apsaras are the most important mythological characters who danced and performed both in heaven and earth. There are various other instances like the stories of the grand act of breaking Shivaâ€™s bow in â€œSita Swayamvarâ€, the evil plotting of Kaikayee, the Banishment of Rama to a fourteen-year exile, Sitaâ€™s kidnapping by Ravana and the war that ensued leading to Ramaâ€™s victory and Sitaâ€™s rescue. Thus, Ramayana is rich in incident and moral concept. We come across many references to perfomances of dances from the Mahabharata. In this period, worship and adoration of Bramha, Vishnu and Mahesh started with music and dance. Krishna is the â€˜Sutradharaâ€™ (around whom the entire Mahabharata developed) and he was an expert dancer. The Mahabharata depicts episodes of Krishnaâ€™s life that how he is adopted and raised by a family of cowherds. The stories of his childhood of stealing butter and milkmaids known as â€œMakhanChoriâ€. His dance of his youth with Radha and Braj narees is known as â€œRasa Lilaâ€. His spiritual love dance with Gopis or Milkmaids by the bank of Yamuna river in moonlit night is known as â€œMahaRaasâ€. The story of â€œKaliya Damanâ€ which tells us how Krishna defeated the poisonous snake Kaliya and danced on his hoods. The story of â€œGovardhan Dharanâ€ which tells us how krishna picked and hold the Govardhan mountain to protect the people of Vrindavan from heavy rain. Another important episode of Mahabharata is known as â€œVastraharanâ€, in which Krishna saves the honour of the Pandava Queen Draupadi. The story goes that Dushasana, one of the Kaurava brothers attempted to humilate her by disrobing her. Draupadi called out to Krishna to save her and miraculously, as layer after layer of her saree was pulled, the number of sarees went on increasing. This episode is a popular theme in Kathak dance. Mahabharata also depicts the story of the five Pandava brothers who were unjustly deprived of their kingdom by their cousins, the kauravas, and of the great battle of Kurukshetra that established the victory of the Pandavas after much suffering and bloodshed. The Mahabharata also describes Krishnaâ€™s role as the Charioteer of Arjuna during the battle of Kurukshetra, and his conversation on the battlefield constitutes the text of the Bhagavad-Gita, the celebrated philosophical work. Thus, it is clear that by the time of Mahabharata, the arts of music and dance developed sufficient content, form, style to be taught in a systematic order. The training also seems to be elaborate with rules and regulations. Natyashastra is an encyclopedic work having 36 chapters and it deals with various topics such as the first 3 chapters deal with the origin of Natya, construction of theatre, Rangapooja, etc. , 4th and 5th chapters deal with the varieties of Dance. The 6th and 7th deal with Rasa and Bhava. From the 8th chapter of the 15th one, the different poses of Dance are being dealt with. The different aspects of Abhinaya are described in 15 to 22 and from 22nd to 28th describe the costumes elaborately. The chapters from 28th to 34 deal with music and musical instruments and the last two deal with the different characters and costumes. Natyashastra also describes the divine character and dance of the Nataraja, the dancing Lord Shiva who is considered the king of actors and dancers and also the supreme Lord of Dance. The moon which he adorns in his head is the symbol complete control of his senses. The serpents wound around his body is the proof of his complete control over vital life forces. His foot raised high over the wicked demon, a symbol of victory over the ego. This divine art form is performed by Shiva and his wife Goddess Parvati. The Dance performed Lord Shiva is known as â€œTandavaâ€, which depicts his violent nature as the destructor of the Universe. The Dance performed by Goddess Parvati is known as â€œLasyaâ€, in which the movements are gentle, graceful, erotic and it is also called the feminine version of Tandava. Therefore, according to Kapila Vatsyayan, Bharata attributes to dancing a divine origin, a literary and religious heritage both in thought and technique and aesthetic secular purpose. It has also been mentioned in Natyashastra, how to interpret the different moods of man accompanied by Bhava, Raga and Tal â€“ all directed to create rasa or emotion in the spectators who are called â€œRasikaasâ€. From the 7th and 8th century, â€œSangeetâ€ occupied a prominent place in the society. The art of sculptures also made great strides and most of the sculptures depicted various dance poses. Temples were the places of origin whereas the dancers or the priests danced in praise of the Lord enacting various mythological stories. Temples sprang up where the devotees gathered to pray to the Almighty God or hear stories about Him. The Temple connection is well established as can be seen in the art of â€œKathavachakasâ€ who carry on the tradition to this day in the North in the Temple boundaries and in open spaces. With the passage of time, in the medieval period, the Bhakti movement influenced all over India. The vast spiritual empire established by Vaishnavism in the North embraces life in its totality. The fine arts found a fuller expression by the 15th and the 16th centuries A. D. Literature, music, dance, painting and other fine arts flourished with the patronage extended by the temples, priests and devotees. In particular the Rasa Lilas in Braj and the neighbouring areas of Mathura in the North sustained the tradition that centered round Vishnu and his recognization as Krishna. The Bhakti movement inspired a whole new school of poetry, dance and music. Krishna and radha are the presiding deities of Vaishnavism and it was on the basis of Leelas of Krishna that precious and distinctive art heritage of Vaishnavism was built up. Mirabai, Surdas and Tulsidas for e. g. wrote powerful devotional verses on longing and separation, expressing the yearning of the human soul for union with God. They chosen the themes was the love of radha for krishna. Krishna Leela though brought out in high relief by Vaishnavism but it had its origin in the past and it can be traced easily to the periods of Mahabharata and Bhasa. In Braj, the Rasa lilaâ€™s developed as a combination of music, dance and narration that was used to enact the Krishna Legends â€“ especially the Radha-Krishna idea and stories of Krishnaâ€™s youth with the gopis or milkmaids. Hence, the earliest compositions in kathak were based on the religious and stylised music of North India, notably the Dhrupad, Keertan, Hori, Dhamar, Pad and Bhajan. According to Mohan Khokar, Keertans are similar style to dhrupad, but they may, unlike the latter, also be sung in chorus. Keertan is a spiritual practice belonging to the path of Bhakti (devotion). Keertan more specifically means the chanting of sacred sounds or mantras. The Rasa Lila miracle plays of Braj were formerly staged to the accompaniment of keertan music only. Keertans were meant both for singing and dancing. Whereas Bhajans are strictly devotional songs and are in praise of deities such as Krishna, Shiva, Rama, Ganesha, Durga, etc. The songs are rendered in ragas, but improvised tunes are also freely used. Stories and episodes from scriptures, the teachings of saints and description of Gods have all been the subject of Bhajan. Bhajans of Mirabai, Tulsidas, Surdas, Kabir, the Ashtachhap poets and other composers are a part of kathak repertoire. Some of the Famous Bhajans of Mirabai is the following: â€œBaso more nanun mein nandlal, Mor mukut makrakrit kundal, arun tilak diyo bhal, Mohni murat â€“ saavari surat, naina bane bisaal, Adhar sudha â€“ ras murli rajat, ur baijanti maal. Chhudra ghantika kati tat sobhit, nupur sabad rasaal, Miraâ€™ prabhu santan sukhdai, bhagat â€“ bachhal gopalâ€ With the advent of the Mughals, the Hindustani music underwent a drastic change. The stylised music absorbed the Mughal influence in a remarkable manner. The dancers moved from the temple courtyard to the palace dubar and this necessitated changes in presentation as Muslim kings could not enjoy the bhava of Bhakti Rasa. Kathak received encouragement at the hands of Nawabs and Rajas. Whereas formerly it was religious and devotional in mood and temperament, now it turned into a means of entertainment. The forms like Thumri, Dadra, Ghazal evolved and became a part of the Hindustani music. The word â€œThumriâ€ has been derived from a combination of two terms i. e. â€˜thumakâ€™ (or the chaal) and â€˜rijhanaâ€™ (or to please). Thus, together meaning graceful stamping of the foot. Thumri is a verse that has Krishna and Radha or Krishna and Gopiâ€™s as its central theme. It is essentially based on the divine romance portraying both aspects of separation and union. The last Nawab of Oudh, Wajid Ali Shah was an accomplished dancer and musician. He composed thumries in classical style and these were sung by the kathak dancers. His contemporaries and the court musicians like Kadarpiya, Akhtar Piya, Lallan Piya, Sikandar Piya and others contributed to its popularity. Although he was a muslim, he liked the Radha-Krishna themes. He himself presented a dance on the Rasa Lila which he called â€˜Rahasâ€™. His famous thumries are the following: â€œBabul mora nehar chhuto jaye, Chaar kahar mil, doliya uthave, Apna begana chhuto jaye. â€ Another Thumri: â€œJab chod chale lucknow nagri, Tab hale â€˜aliâ€™ par kya guzri, Mahal mahal mein begum rove, Jab hum guzre duniya guzri. â€ According to PeterLamarche Manuel, Bindadin Maharaj is regarded as one of the most important figures in the development of Thumri as well as Kathak. The kathak Masters Bindadin and his brother Kalka Prasad composed Thumries that were suitable for kathak dancing. Some of the famous Thumri of Bindadin Maharaj is the following: â€œMohe chhedo na, nand ki suno challa, Badi der bhai, ghar jane de mohe.
It may seem like cell phone television commercials are straightforward and easy to follow, but many people would agree that after a few monthly bills start flowing in, they may form a different opinion. These â€œso-simpleâ€ cellular phone plans that the companies advocate are often quite misleading to consumers. This is largely due to the fact that companies present viewers with a vague explanation of their services. This is successful in making a person feel the need to sign-up without any apprehensions. Many individuals do not realize that they have been deceived into a contract that they will eventually regret after it is too late. The most common misleading topic that cell phone commercials try to avoid expressing is the costs of the unknown bill charges and where they come from.
Cell phone companies work hard to hide as much of the costs as possible from their consumers. They may say a certain rate in the advertisement, but this is the bare minimum in most cases. What they are not telling their costumers are the roaming charges, long distance contingencies, and, if available, text message rates. Indefinite bill charges are very popular problems that occur for most customers. For example, a Sprint customer experienced first hand how Sprint was increasing their monthly rates. The customer had signed up for a $50-a-month plan but did not know what he was paying for until, â€œhe heard the news that Sprint PCS had been quietly imposing rate increases, tucking them under â€˜fees and surchargesâ€™â€(Ballheim,2003). People are often not aware of what the whole plan includes because just pieces of favorable information are told to them.
When the customer finally realizes the extra costs, and want to change companies, they are slammed with even more charges. The man who was mentioned previously still had to pay another $150 dollars as a penalty fine in order to cancel his service (Ballheim, 2003). This is an all too familiar case with false advertising a cell phone plan. It seems as though the cell phone companies should be the ones who should pay the penalty fine. But, we, the customers, keep paying these deceiving companies to mislead us and charge more money when they do.
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